X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD)

Brand/Model: Philips, EMPYREAN

Empyrean is a true multi-purpose research X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and unique in its ability to measure all sample types on a single instrument, without compromising data quality: powders, thin films, nanomaterials, solid objects

Parallel-beam geometry can be used for the phase identification of rough and irregularly shaped objects.


Powder XRD done at standard angular resolutions is extremely rapid and easy to perform.  Very high angular resolution scans are possible to help solve difficult problems.

Applications include:

  • Powder diffraction in reflection mode: regular powder diffraction for back packed samples in reflection mode. Constant irradiated length or fixed slits can be used. Parallel optics can be used for diffraction of irregular shaped objects.
  • Data obtained can be analyzed using phase identification, crystallite size analysis, Rietveld refinement, indexing of unit cell and structure solution techniques in HighScore. 
  • Transmission:
    Transmission diffraction is used to analyze X-ray transparent materials, such as pharmaceuticals, for low-angle powder diffraction or for investigating preferred orientation issues. Typically, the sample is prepared between transparent foils like kapton films.
  • Thin film:
    Incident angles are very low (glancing), so radiation does not penetrate far into the substrate. The crystallographic texture and composition can be determined using XRD Phase Analysis.

Available techniques:

  1. Low-angle diffraction: typical range = 0.3º~ 10º in 2θ
  2. Thin film analysis, XRD phase analysis, rocking curve
  3. Powder X-ray diffraction, rapid scan typically 2 to 5 minutes
  4. Offline analysis of data
  5. Crystallographic orientation