## Seepage Face Studies

(Schematic of a seepage face in a beach)

A novel dimensionless formulation for water flow in two-dimensional variably saturated media is presented. It shows that scaling physical systems requires conservation of the ratio between capillary forces and gravity forces. A direct result of this finding is that for two physical systems to be hydraulically similar, the soil in the smaller system has to be coarser than the soil in the larger system. The formulation was implemented in the numerical model MARUN (for MARine UNsaturated), a two-dimensional finite-element model for viscosity-and-density-dependent flows in variably-saturated anisotropic media.

Steady state results from the MARUN model for a coarse-textured domain (alpha=10) and for a fine-textured (alpha=0.5) domain. The figures show the water table, relative soil moisture, and velocity vectors.