Publications By Year


Peer Reviewed Journals


  1. Arun Reddy, Ravula, Rodriguez Jose, Younger Daniel, Perumal Venkatesan, Shao Ningning, V. Kakulavarapu, Pfister Bryan, and Chandra Namas. 2022. 'Animal model of repeated low-level blast traumatic brain injury displays acute and chronic neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes', Experimental Neurology, 349: 113938.

  2. Billiar, K., Gaver, D. P., 3rd, Barbee, K., Singh, A., DesJardins, J. D., Pruitt, B., Tranquillo, J., Gaudette, G., Winkelstein, B., Makowski, L., Amos, J. R., Saterbak, A., LeDoux, J., Helmke, B., Grimm, M., Benkeser, P., Segan, L. D., Pfister, B., Meaney, D., Arinzeh, T., … Margulies, S. (2022). Learning Environments and Evidence-Based Practices in Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering. Biomedical engineering education, 2(1), 1–16.


  1. Siriwardane, M. L., K. Derosa, G. Collins and B. J. Pfister (2021). "Engineering Fiber-Based Nervous Tissue Constructs for Axon Regeneration." Cells Tissues Organs 210(2): 105-117.

  2. Shao, N., S. Jiang, D. Younger, T. Chen, M. Brown, K. V. R. Rao, M. Skotak, R. Z. Gan and N. Chandra (2021). "Central and peripheral auditory abnormalities in chinchilla animal model of blast-injury." Hear Res 407: 108273.


  1. Murugan, M., A. Ravula, A. Gandhi, G. Vegunta, S. Mukkamalla, W. Mujib and N. Chandra (2020). "Chemokine signaling mediated monocyte infiltration affects anxiety-like behavior following blast injury." Brain Behav Immun.

  2. Loverde, J. R., R. E. Tolentino, P. Soteropoulos and B. J. Pfister (2020). "Biomechanical Forces Regulate Gene Transcription During Stretch-Mediated Growth of Mammalian Neurons." Front Neurosci 14: 600136.

  3. Kim, J., A. A. Adams, P. Gokina, B. Zambrano, J. Jayakumaran, R. Dobrowolski, P. Maurel, B. J. Pfister and H. A. Kim (2020). "Mechanical stretch induces myelin protein loss in oligodendrocytes by activating Erk1/2 in a calcium-dependent manner." Glia 68(10): 2070-2085.

  4. Aravind, A., A. R. Ravula, N. Chandra and B. J. Pfister (2020). "Behavioral Deficits in Animal Models of Blast Traumatic Brain Injury." Front Neurol 11: 990.

  5. Aravind, A., J. Kosty, N. Chandra and B. J. Pfister (2020). "Blast exposure predisposes the brain to increased neurological deficits in a model of blast plus blunt traumatic brain injury." Exp Neurol 332: 113378.

  6. Abdul-Wahab, R., M. T. Long, R. Ordaz, B. G. Lyeth and B. J. Pfister (2020). "Outcome measures from experimental traumatic brain injury in male rats vary with the complete temporal biomechanical profile of the injury event." J Neurosci Res 98(10): 2027-2044.


  1. X. Ma, A. Aravind, BJ. Pfister, N. Chandra, J. Haorah, "Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury and Assesment of Injury Severity", Molecular Neurobiology, doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1454-5 (2019) Link | pdf

  2. M. Kuriakose, D. Younger, A.R. Ravula, E. Alay, K.V. Rama Rao, N. Chandra, "Synergistic Roles of Oxidative Stress and Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability as Injury Mechanisms in the Acute Pathophysiology of Blast-Induced Nuerotrauma." Nature Scietific Reports, (2019) Link | pdf

  3. D. Younger, M. Murugan, Rama Rao K.V., LJ. Wu , N. Chandra. 2019. "Microglia Receptors in Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury". Mol Neurobiol, 2018 Dec 16. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1428-7. [Epub ahead of print].

  4. M. Skotak, M.T. Townsend, Rama Rao K.V, N. Chandra. 2019. "A comprehensive review of experimental rodent models of repeated blast TBI". Frontiers in Neurology. 10: 1015. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.01015.

  5. M. Skotak, M. T. Townsend, E. Alay, N. Chandra, "The Effect of Geometrical Factors on the Surface Pressure Distribution on a Human Phantom Model Following Shock Exposure: A Computational and Experimental Study”, High Velocity Impact and Blast Loading - Field Data and Modeling (book chapter), 2019, doi: 10.5772/intechopen.88809.

  6. B. Swietek, M. Skotak, N. Chandra, B. J Pfister, "Characterization of a controlled shock wave delivered by a pneumatic table-top gas driven shock tube”, Review of Scientific Instruments, 90 (2019) 075116.

  7. M. Skotak, Ch. LaValle, A. Misistia, M. J. Egnoto, N. Chandra, G. H Kamimori, “Occupational Blast Wave Exposure During Multiday. 50 Caliber Rifle Course”, Frontiers in Neurology 10 (2019) 797. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00797.


  1. M. T. Townsend, E. Alay, M. Skotak, N. Chandra, “Effect of tissue material properties in blast loading: coupled experimentation and finite element simulation”, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, ABME-D-18-0051 (in print), (2018) Link | pdf

  2. D. Younger, M. Murugan, K.V. Rama Rao, L.J. Wu, N. Chandra, “Microglia Receptors in Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury”, Molecular Neurobiology, MOLN-D-18-00916R1 (in print), (2018) Link | pdf 

  3. G. Ordek, A. Asan, E. Cetinkaya, M. Skotak, K.V Rama Rao, N. Chandra, M. Sahin, “Electrophysiological Correlates of Blast-Wave Induced Cerebellar Injury”, Nature-Scientific Reports, 8(1), 13633, (2018) Link | pdf

  4. M. Kuriakose, K.V. Rama Rao, D. Younger, N. Chandra. “Temporal and Spatial Effects of Blast Overpressure on Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Traumatic Brain Injury.Nature-Scientific Reports, 8(1), 8681, (2018) Link | pdf

  5. Kakulavarapu V. Rama Rao, Stephanie Iring, Daniel Younger, Matthew Kuriakose, Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, Raj K. Gupta, Namas Chandra, "A single primary blast‐induced traumatic brain injury in rodent model causes cell‐type dependent increase in NADPH oxidase isoforms in vulnerable brain regions," Journal of Neurotrauma, , 35,1-14, (2018) Link | pdf

  6. M. Skotak, E. Alay, JQ. Zheng, V. Halls, N. Chandra, “Effective testing of personal protective equipment in blast loading conditions in shock tube: comparison of three different testing locations”, PloS ONE, 13 (6), e018968,  (2018) Link | pdf

  7. M. Skotak, E. Alay, N. Chandra, "On the accurate determination of shock wave time-pressure profile in the experimental models of blast induced neurotrauma”, Frontiers in Neurology, doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00052 (2018). Link | pdf
  8. A. Sundaramurthy, M. Skotak, E. Alay, G. Unnikrishnan, H. Mao, X. Duan, S. T. Williams, T. H. Harding, N. Chandra, and J. Reifman, “Assessment of the effectiveness of combat eyewear protection against blast overpressure”, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 140, 071003-1-12, (2018) Link | pdf
  9. Daniel E Bonder, Carolyn E Keating, N. Chandra, D Kacy Cullen, BJ Pfister, “Modeling Traumatic Brain Injury In Vitro”, Preclinical and Clinical Methods in Brain Trauma Research, 37-69, (2018). Link | 

  10. E. Alay, M. Skotak, A. Misistia, N. Chandra, "Dynamic loads on human and animal surrogates at different test locations in compressed-gas-driven shock tubes”Shock Waves, doi: 10.1007/s00193-017-0762-4 (2017). Link | pdf


  1. N. Chandra, A. Sundaramurthy, R.K. Gupta, "Validation of laboratory animal and surrogate human models in the primary blast injury studies", Journal of Military Medicine, 182, 3/4:105,  doi (2017). Link | pdf


  1. M. Kuriakose, Skotak,  M, Misistia,  A, Kahali S, Sundaramurthy A, Chandra N " Tailoring the Blast Exposure Conditions in the Shock Tube for Generating Pure, Primary Shock Waves: The End Plate Facilitates Elimination of Secondary Loading of the Specimen." PLoS ONE 11(9): e0161597. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161597 (2016). Link| pdf

  2. V. Mishra, M. Skotak, H. Schuetz, A. Heller, J. Haorah, N. Chandra, "Primary blast causes mild, moderate, severe and lethal TBI with increasing blast overpressures: Experimental rat injury model", Nature-Scientific Reports, 6, 26992 (2016). Link| pdf

  3. S. Ganpule, R. Salzar, B. Perry and N. Chandra, "Role of helmets in blast mitigation: insights from experiments on PMHS surrogate," International Journal of Experimental and Computational Biomechanics (2016).  Link| pdf

  4. Y Qiu, Y Wang, Y Xu, N Chandra, J Haorah, B Hubbi, BJ Pfister, X Liu, "Quantitative optical coherence elastography based on fiber-optic probe for in situ measurement of tissue mechanical properties", Biomedical Optics Express 7 (2), 688-700 (2016).  Link| pdf

  5. Y. Qiu, F. Zaki, N. Chandra, S. Chester and X. Liu, "Quantitative optical coherence elastography for the measurement of nonlinear elasticity," Biomedical Optics Express. Under review. (2016). Link| pdf


  1. PM Abdul-Muneer, BJ Pfister, J Haorah, N Chandra, “Role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury,” Molecular neurobiology, 1-18, (2015).  Link| pdf


  1. F. Wang, R. Franco, M. Skotak, G. Hu, N. Chandra, "Mechanical stretch exacerbates the cell death in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to paraquat: mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress", Neurotoxicology 46, 54-63 (2014) Link| pdf

  2. PM Abdul-Muneer, N. Chandra, J. Haorah, "Interactions of oxidative stress and neurovascular inflammation in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury", Molecular Neurobiology 1-14 (2014) Link| pdf

  3. J. Navarro-Yepes, L. Zavala-Flores, A. Anandhan, F. Wang, M. Skotak, N. Chandra, M. Li, A. Pappa, D. Martinez-Fong, L. M. Del Razo, B. Quintanilla-Vega, R. Franco, "Antioxidant gene therapy against neuronal cell death", Pharmacology & Therapeutics 142, 206-230 (2014) Link| pdf

  4. A. Sundaramurthy and N. Chandra, "A Parametric Approach to Shape Field-Relevant Blast Wave Profiles in Compressed-Gas-Driven Shock Tube", Frontiers in Neurology 5, 253 (2014) Link | pdf​


  1. V. Selvan, S. Ganpule, N. Kleinschmidt and N. Chandra, "Blast Wave Loading Pathways in Heterogeneous Materials Systems-Experimental and Numerical Approach", Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 135, 061002-1-14 (2013) Link | pdf

  2. P.M. Abdul Muneer, H. Schuetz, F. Wang, M. Skotak, J. Jones, S. Gorantla, M. C. Zimmerman, N. Chandra, and J. Haorah, "Induction of Oxidative and Nitrosative damage leads to Cerebrovascular Inflammation in Animal Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Induced by Primary Blast", Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 60, 282-291 (2013) Link | pdf

  3. M. Skotak, F. Wang, A. Alai, A. Holmberg, S. Harris, R.C. Switzer III, and N. Chandra, "Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: Acute response to a wide range of peak overpressures", Journal of Neurotrauma, 30, 1147-1160 (2013) Link | pdf

  4. S. Ganpule, A. Alai, E. Plougonven, and N. Chandra, "Mechanics of Blast Loadings on the Head Models in the Study of Traumatic Brain Injury Using Experimental and Computational Approaches", Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology 12, 511-531 (2013) Link | pdf


  1. N. Chandra, S. Ganpule, N.N. Kleinschmit, R. Feng, A.D. Holmberg, A. Sundaramurthy, V. Selvan, A. Alai, "Evolution of Blast Wave Profiles in Simulated Air Blasts: Experiment and Computational Modeling", Shock Waves: An International Journal on Shock Waves, Detonation and Explosions, 22, 403-415 (2012) Link | pdf

  2. A. Sundaramurthy, A. Alai, S. Ganpule, A. Holmberg, E. Plougonven and N. Chandra, "Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate Computational Blast Injury Model", Journal of Neurotrauma, 29, 2352-2364 (2012) Link | pdf

  3. M. Skotak, F. Wang, and N. Chandra, "An in-vitro model for SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell: Effect of strain and strain rate", Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 205, 159-168 (2012) Link | pdf

  4. L. Gu, M.S. Chafi, S. Ganpule, and N. Chandra, "The influence of heterogeneous meninges on the brain mechanics under primary blast loading", Composites, Part B: Engineering, 43, 3160-3166 (2012) Link | pdf


  1. S. Ganpule, L, Gu, A. Alai and N. Chandra, "Role of helmet in the mechanics of shock wave propagation under blast loading conditions", Computer methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 15, 1233-1244 (2011) Link | pdf

  2. S. Ganpule, L. Gu, M.S. Chafi, and N. Chandra, "Dynamic response of brain subjected to blast loadings: Influence of frequency ranges", International Journal of Applied Mechanics 3, 803-823 (2011) Link | pdf

  3. G. Cao and N. Chandra, "Evaluating the Biological Cell Properties Using Dynamic Indentation Method", Physical Review E, 81, 021924, 1-9, (2010) Link | pdf​

  4. Pfister BJ, Gordon T, Loverde JR, Kochar AS, Mackinnon SE, Cullen DK: Biomedical engineering strategies for peripheral nerve repair: surgical applications, state of the art, and future challenges. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2011, 39:81-124.

  5. Magou GC, Guo Y, Choudhury M, Chen L, Hususan N, Masotti S, Pfister BJ: Engineering a high throughput axon injury system. J Neurotrauma 2011, 28:2203-2218.

  6. Loverde JR, Tolentino RE, Pfister BJ: Axon stretch growth: the mechanotransduction of neuronal growth. J Vis Exp 2011.

  7. Loverde JR, Ozoka VC, Aquino R, Lin L, Pfister BJ: Live imaging of axon stretch growth in embryonic and adult neurons. J Neurotrauma 2011, 28:2389-2403.

  8. Cullen DK, Wolf JA, Smith DH, Pfister BJ: Neural tissue engineering for neuroregeneration and biohybridized interface microsystems in vivo (Part 2). Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2011, 39:241-259.







  1. N. Chandra, A. Holmberg, and R. Feng, "Controlling the shape of the shock wave profile in a blast facility", U.S. Provisional patent application no. 61542354, Oct. 3, 2011

Conference proceedings


  1. M. Skotak, F. Wang and N. Chandra, "In vivo acute pathophysiology rodent model of primary blast injury", Journal of Neurotrauma, 29, A67-A68 (2012). The 30th Annual National Neurotrauma Symposium, July 22-25, 2012, Phoenix, AZ Link | pdf
  2. F. Wang, M. Skotak and N. Chandra, "An in vitro injury model for SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: effect of strain and strain rate", Journal of Neurotrauma, 29, A77-A77 (2012). The 30th Annual National Neurotrauma Symposium, July 22-25, 2012, Phoenix, AZ Link | pdf
  3. N. Chandra and R. Gupta, "Shock loading-induced Traumatic Brain Injuries in animal models - experimental and computational studies". The 30th Annual National Neurotrauma Symposium, The 9th World Congress on Brain Injury International Brain Injury Association, March 21-25, 2012, Edinburgh, Scotland  pdf


  1. G. Cao, Y. Zhou, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Lim, N. Chandra, "Mechanical model of neuronal function loss", Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2010), November 12-18, 2010, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Link | pdf
  2. G. Cao, Y. Zhou, J. S. Lee, J. Y. Lim, N. Chandra, "Computational simulation of the deformation of neuronal cells", Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2010), November 12-18, 2010, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Link | pdf
  3. S. Ganpule, L. Gu, N. Chandra, " Modeling shock response of helmeted head using fluid structure interaction", 16th US National Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, June 27 - July 2, 2010, State College, PA  pdf
  4. M. Nienaber, J.S. Lee, R. Feng, J. Y. Lim, "Impulsive Pressurization of Neuronal Cells", 47th Annual Technical Meeting of Society of Engineering Science, October 3-6, 2010, Ames, IA  pdf
  5. J. S. Lee, M. Nienaber, R. Feng, J. Y. Lim, "A Kolsky Bar Technique for Impulsive Fluid Pressurization", BMES Annual Conference & Exposition, October 6-9, 2010, Austin, TX  pdf
  6. M. Nienaber, J.G. Vogeler, R. Feng, "A Kolsky Bar Technique for Impulsive Fluid Pressurization", SEM Annual Conference & Exposition, June 7-10, 2010, Indianapolis, IN Link | pdf
  7. S.G.M. Hossain, C.A. Nelson, E. Sogbesan, T. Boulet, M. Arnoult, L. Zhang, A. Holmberg, J. Hein, N. Kleinschmit, "Material Modeling and Development of a Realistic Dummy Head for Testing Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury", IV European Conference on Computational Mechanics, May 16-21, 2010, Palais des Congres, Paris, France Paper | Presentation


  1. G. Cao, N. Chandra, "Evaluating the Mechanical Behavior of a Cell Based on AFM indentation", 3rd International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues, December 13-17, 2009, Clearwater Beach, FL  pdf
  2. G. Cao, N. Chandra, "Substrate effect on Dynamic Indentation Measurement of Biological Cell Properties", MRS Spring Meeting, April 13-17, 2009, San Francisco, CA  pdf
  3. S. Ganpule, L. Gu, G. Cao, N. Chandra, "The Effect of Shock Wave on a Human Head", Proceedings of the ASME 2009 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (IMECE2009), November 13-19, 2009, Lake Buena Vista, FL Link | pdf
  4. S. Ganpule, L. Gu, G. Cao, N. Chandra, "Computational Modeling of Human Head Under Blast Loading", 10th US National Congress on Computational Mechanics, July 16-19, 2009, Columbus, OH  pdf